The Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme (KENSUP) is a key core poverty Programme aimed at addressing the challenge of housing problems affecting the majority of the urban population who live in slums and informal settlements.
The Government and the UN-HABITAT entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on 15th February 2003 to upgrade slums and informal settlements in Kenya starting with selected slums within the administrative boundaries of the Nairobi, Mavoko, Mombasa and Kisumu.
The Programme aims at improving the lives of people living and working in the slumsand informal settlements in all urban areas of Kenya and to contribute to poverty reduction and fulfillment of the Millennium Development Goals, specifically Goal No 7 target 11- of improving the lives of 100 million slum dwellers by the year 2020.
The implementation of the KENSUP broadly falls under three key institutions namely; the Government, Local Authorities; and United Nations Human Settlement Programme- UN-HABITAT. The Programme is coordinated through the following institutions:
Inter-Agency Steering Committee (IASC): IASC is the supreme Programme organ composed mainly of Accounting Officers of Key relevant Ministries, Local authorities, UN-HABITAT and Development Partners. The IASC set for approval of policy decisions, giving policy direction and reporting to the Head of State as the patron to KENSUP. This brings KENSUP to the centre of national decision-making and provides opportunity for fundraising.
The ministries involved are:
- Office of the President (Provincial Administration)
- Local Government
- Roads and Public Works
- Finance and Planning
- Ministry of Trade and Industry
- Water and Irrigation
- Ministry of Information & Communication
The Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee (IACC): This is the intermediary organ between the KENSUP operatives and the IASC. It provides a mechanism for coordinating all KENSUP related activities and monitoring of inputs in slum upgrading. In itself IACC is a repository of skills and experience in various technical areas and policy. In its establishment IACC also includes NGO/Civil society providing an opportunity to tap skills and experience of all other parties.
KENSUP Secretariat: Is the central operational level for coordination and tracking of the slum upgrading processes and the day-to-day running of the Programme. It is the nucleus for coordination, building capacity for Local Authorities and local actors, and information management (sourcing, storing and dissemination of programme related information). The Secretariat is the link point of all KENSUP organs and therefore responsible for generation of briefs and reports for submission and for consideration in the higher organs. Currently the secretariat comprises of a Programme Coordinator and 12 officers, six of who are seconded from other Government Ministries.
The Project Implementation Unit (PIU): These are established within Local Authorities to facilitate the formation of SPIU, co-ordinate the work of the SPIUs, assist in planning, design, and construction of required facilities, provide technical, logistical and resource support to SPIU.
The Settlements Project Implementation Units (SPIUs): Are the organs linking the Programme secretariat, PIU and the community. They are responsible for mobilizing actors and coordinating their activities at the settlement level. The SPIUs identify appropriate settlement stakeholders and grassroots organisations, their potentials and activities, in co-ordination with PIU and Programme Secretariat.
Settlement Executive Committee: Its main role is to act as a link between the Programme Implementation Unit and settlement community. The SEC is expected to facilitate community networks, cooperatives, and resource mobilization processes such as savings and credit schemes among others. It is the forum for advocacy for community rights and ideally ensures full community participation in decision-making.
Multi-Stakeholder Support Group (MSSG): This comprises of representatives of development partners, Civil Society, Government, Local Authorities, and Communities among others. It is a broad setup for general Programme review and feed back that bring out experiences of various stakeholders to inform the Programme. It is an ideal forum for fundraising and partnership participation.
Kenya Slum Upgrading, Low Cost Housing and Infrastructure Trust Fund (KSULCH&IT or KENSUF) – The establishment of slum upgrading fund is a key element in the memorandum of understanding between the Government and UN-HABITAT. The fund is a central depository of all mobilized financial resources for slum upgrading. It therefore draws funds from donors, CBOs, private sector and Government budgetary allocations. The fund has the potential for pooling resources and institutionalization of transparent resource allocation mechanism. It is to be run by a board composition that includes public, private, and key donor contributors.
The Programme generally entails participatory planning and implementation of the following strategic components;
- Community mobilization, organisation and participation
- Preparation of City/Town development strategic and land use master plans
- Shelter improvement
- Provision of Physical and social infrastructure/amenities
- Environment and Solid waste management
- Employment / income generating activities
- Liaison with micro financing and credit systems
- HIV/AIDS concerns
- Conflict prevention and management
- Support to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups
KENSUP PROGRESS TO DATE
Progress made in KENSUP can be divided into the following categories:
- Inception Phase
- Pre-Implementation Phase
- Current KENSUP Status
The Inception Phase- In this phase the Programme was conceptualized, involving basic groundwork and formulating of Institutional framework for the Programme. Activities in this phase included;
- A Nairobi Situation Analysis was produced as an informing tool to the general Slum Upgrading Process.
- Multi stakeholders consultative fora were held to develop a common understanding and upgrading approaches among the several stakeholders
- A criteria for identification of priority settlements for upgrading was developed out which Kibera Settlement was prioritized
- Production of KENSUP Programme Document and Kibera Soweto Project document
- A Memorandum of Understanding between the Government and UN-HABITAT was developed and signed in 2003.
- The Institutional Framework to run the Programme was formulated that proposed establishment of various organizational Units necessary for implementation of the Programme.
- Pre-Implementation Phase- The phase set the stage for the ground implementation of KENSUP in the identified sites. The activities in this phase involved;
- The Establishment of Organizational Units in 2004 that include KENSUP Secretariat, at Ministry level, the Programme Implementations Unit (PIU),
- Settlement Programme Implementation Units (SPIU) and Settlement Executive Committees all under the City Council of Nairobi.
- An Actors Study was conducted in Kibera to establish the various stakeholders that will play a part in implementation
- Identification of land in both Nairobi and Mavoko has been done to serve various purposes of upgrading process.
- The Socio-Economic Mapping of Kibera has been underway and the consultants have just submitted the Report.
- The Physical Mapping of Kibera is on-going and detailed planning is expected by early 2006.
- The Decanting Site was identified and design works carried out.
- A KENSUP Implementation and Financial Strategy 2005-2020 has been formulated giving the road map to implementation process and also the financial implications
- Of the Programme. The Strategy will also be useful as a tool for mobilizing finance from various supporting partners.
- The Cabinet approved establishment of a Low Cost Housing and Infrastructure Trust Fund which will be a depository for monies mobilized for slum Upgrading.
- The logistics of operationalising the Fund are at an advanced stage.
- Developed various guidelines to safeguard displacements of targeted communities like formation of Housing Cooperatives, relocation issues, tenure arrangements among others.
- The KENSUP Mavoko component has been progressing with community mobilization activities, and design of house types is in progress
- The Kisumu and Mombasa components – the Municipal Council are in process of putting information together for their prioritized proposed Projects.
CURRENT PROGRAMME STATUS
The Programme is currently in the implementation phase covering selected slums in Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, and Mavoko.
Kibera Decanting Site Housing Scheme
In order to upgrade the Kibera slums, it is necessary to relocate sections of the community (in phases) to a decanting site in order to free up way leaves for infrastructural services so that construction works in the main project area can progress smoothly. The Langata decanting site was identified as a suitable holding ground for the residents who will have to be relocated.
The Site is located at Langata across the slum settlement adjacent to the Raila village. It measures 2.00 Ha. Construction of 17 blocks of 5 storey high flats totaling 600 three roomed self combined units is on going. The works are expected to be completed by November 2007.
Kibera Slums Spine Road.
A 4.26 km spine road and associated infrastructure are proposed to be constructed
parallel to the railway line, across Kibera. The proposed physical infrastructure on the
spine road includes:
* Roads and walkways
* Storm water drainage
* Water reticulation
* Street and security lighting infrastructure
* Sewerage infrastructure
* Business stalls
* Bus stops
* Public toilets
* Environmental and solid waste management
Project proposals regarding the spine road have been forwarded to the Chinese and Malaysian Governments for consideration for funding
Mavoko Sustainable Neighbourhood Programme (SNP)
Some 405 housing units will be developed in Mavoko/Athi River on a 21.64 Ha piece of land set aside for the sustainable Neighbourhood component under KENSUP. This is a Government led project while another 21.64 Ha of land will be developed by UN-HABITAT under self Help Housing for slum residents of Mavoko. Construction works for the 405 units is in progress.
Mombasa KENSUP Component
Mombasa Municipality is also earmarked for slum upgrading. Construction of critical social infrastructure comprising Boundary wall and 18 classrooms and a primary school, one Health centre, connecting road, water reticulation and street lighting at Ziwa-La-Ngombe Informal Settlement are planned.
Kisumu KENSUP Component
The component consists of construction of critical social infrastructure comprising classrooms, health centre early childhood development units, incinerator, rehabilitation of social hall and market centres, upgrading of roads with associated external works in slum settlements in Kisumu.
Formation of Housing Cooperatives at Kibera and Mavoko
KENSUP envisages use of housing cooperatives as the means by which community funds will be mobilized, define ownership and general tenure arrangements. The formation of cooperatives in both Mavoko and Kibera, by the Ministry of Cooperative Development and Management is already in progress. 5No. housing cooperatives have been formed and registered in Mavoko and 4 No. in Soweto, Kibera.
Capacity building and Communication Strategy
Sida Kenya is currently supporting KENSUP in both capacity Building and communication for the institutions under the Programme. Capacity needs and communication gaps have been identified and are currently under implementation.
Kenya Slum Upgrading, Low Cost Housing and Infrastructure Fund (KENSUF)
The establishment of slum upgrading fund is a key element in the memorandum of understanding between the Government and UN-HABITAT. The fund has been established as a central depository of all mobilized financial resources for slum upgrading – these include funds from donors, CBOs, private sector and Government budgetary allocations. The regulations governing the fund were gazetted in December 2006.A bank account for the Fund has been opened at Cooperative Bank and the Minister for Housing is in the process of appointing a Board of trustees drawn from public, private, NGO/CBO and key donor organisations for management purposes.
Investment and Resource Mobilization Conference
A National Stakeholders conference on slum upgrading, low cost housing and resource mobilization was held on April 11 2007 at the Kenyatta international conference centre. The objectives of the conference were:
- To facilitate sharing of information amongst stakeholders in various aspects of upgrading of slums and informal settlements.
- To enhance coordination of stakeholders under KENSUP in order to facilitate synergy in programme implementation and the realization of stakeholder goals.
- To elicit the commitment of stakeholders to support the Kenya Slum Upgrading Strategy (KENSUP)
Other KENSUP Issues
As a nuclear to coordinate all slum upgrading activities, KENSUP is also working in close liaison stakeholders especially Local Authorities and civil society. Currently, the following are active areas/projects:
* WATSAN – UN-HABITAT initiative in water, sanitation and solid waste management.
* Umande Trust – Water and sanitation for the urban poor, WSUP, Kibera.
* Leveling of silanga field with the help of funding from Kilimanjaro iniative in collaboration with Safer Nairobi Initiative.Undugu society hold the Field in trust of Kibera community.
* Kariobangi Social Welfare housing project
* Thika Municipality – Kianduttu Informal Settlement
The Ministry of Housing, has undertaken to construct a 12m access road through Kibera informal settlement starting with Soweto East Village. The 1.25km road will follow the existing track commencing at the footbridge off Mbagathi way and running through the settlement to Kibera Drive. In this financial year 2007/08 the Ministry will construct the first 500m of the road, commencing at Mbagathi way. The construction will comprise:
* 6m wide carriageway
* 2m wide footpath on each side
* 1m wide drains on both sides- between the carriageway and the footpath
* Street lighting